The extraction of valuable material from the earth is known as mining. Many o the extracted materials have too much economical value and it can be very good for those countries where these mines are present. These are those materials which cannot be produced by agriculture or any other industry. These materials are present in the deep layers of earth or mountains and extracting them is a very hard and long process. Some of these materials are metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Not just these materials, mining process also extract oil and gas present deep in the earth.
Mining is a beneficial industry for a country economically but it has many bad affects on environment. There are too many risks involved in mining process and these risks do not end even after the end of the process. To avoid any greater harm and to avoid full ruination of the environment, mining industrialists have passed some rules and regulation for during and after the process.
The materials that are being extracted are not reproducing and there are chances that after a limited time there won’t any material left to extract and if recycling will not increase in future, the world will lose many valuable items for ever.
The first is finding of the ore body, which is happens through investigation to find and then define the extent, location and worth of the ore body. This leads to mathematical resource assessment to guess the size and grade of the item. After the estimating the value, related people decide if the process of extracting will be worthy or not which means does the specific item do have enough economical value or not. In the end they decide the economical and technical risks attached to the process to foam a decision whether or not taking risk would be a good idea or not. To start the process, it is important for a miner to remove the waste material from the earth first, that depends on the location that how much waste material will need to be removed.
There are many mining plants in the world to extract valuable items from the earth. There are three kinds of technologies that are being used for mining, and the extractions have been divided in to two categories, placer deposits such as minerals and beach sand and then there are lode deposits consists on valuable minerals are found in veins, in layers, or in mineral grains generally distributed throughout a mass of actual rock.
Surface mining is the very first technique. The process starts with the removal of vegetation, dirt, and, if necessary, layers of bedrock in order to reach buried ore deposits. This process happens commonly for coal extraction , in this process mountaintop removal also accrues. Sub-surface mining consists of digging tunnels or shafts into the earth to reach buried ore deposits. Ore, for processing, and waste rock, for disposal, are brought to the surface through the tunnels and shafts.
Acid mine drainage from mining waste is the biggest problem of environment. This problem needs urgent attention. This term describes the drainage generated by natural oxidation of sulfide minerals when they are exposed to the combined action of water and atmospheric oxygen. This water went deep in the ground and poisons it. Because of it many river courses worldwide have metal contamination from sulfide oxidation processes taking place in surface mining. Many Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Methods have been introduced but risks are still too much.